Clopidogrel wikipedia

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  1. macart Guest

    Clopidogrel wikipedia


    They are widely used in primary and secondary prevention of thrombotic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Antiplatelet therapy with one or more of these drugs decreases the ability of blood clot to form by interfering with platelet activation process in primary hemostasis. Antiplatelet drugs can reversibly or irreversibly inhibit the process involved in platelet activation resulting in decreased tendency of platelets to adhere to one another and to damaged blood vessels' endothelium. states: "...low-dose aspirin increases the risk of major bleeding 2-fold compared with placebo. However, the annual incidence of major bleeding due to low-dose aspirin is modest—only 1.3 patients per thousand higher than what is observed with placebo treatment. Treatment of approximately 800 patients with low-dose aspirin annually for cardiovascular prophylaxis will result in only 1 additional major bleeding episode." Often a combination of aspirin plus an ADP/P2Y inhibitor (such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, or another) is used in order to obtain greater effectiveness than with either agent alone. This is known as "Dual antiplatelet therapy" (or DAPT). Clopidogrel Tablets belong to a group of medicines called antiplatelet medicinal products. Platelets are very small structures in the blood, which clump together during blood clotting. By preventing this clumping, antiplatelet medicinal products reduce the chances of blood clots forming (a process called thrombosis). Clopidogrel Tablets are taken to prevent blood clots (thrombi) forming in hardened blood vessels (arteries), a process known as atherothrombosis, which can lead to atherothrombotic events (such as stroke, heart attack or death). You have been prescribed Clopidogrel Tablets to help prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of these severe events because: If you think any of these apply to you, or if you are in any doubt at all, consult your doctor before taking Clopidogrel Tablets. Take special care with Clopidogrel Tablets: If any of the situations mentioned below apply to you, you should tell your doctor before taking Clopidogrel Tablets: Clopidogrel Tablets are not intended for use in children or adolescents. Taking other medicines Please tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or have recently taken any other medicines, including medicines obtained without a prescription.

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    Ticlopidine, taken together with aspirin, is FDA approved for this purpose, and in studies it has been shown to work better than aspirin alone or aspirin with an anticoagulant. However, ticlopidine’s serious side effects make it less useful than its cousin, clopidogrel. Current recommendations no longer recommend ticlopidine’s use. El clopidogrel es un agente antiplaquetario del tipo tienopiridina administrado por vía oral, que inhibe la formación de coágulos en la enfermedad arterial. Clopidogrel's wiki Clopidogrel, sold as the brandname Plavix among others, 76 is a medication that is used to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in those at high risk.

    Ticlopidine (trade name Ticlid) is an antiplatelet drug in the thienopyridine family which is an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitor. Research initially showed that it was useful for preventing strokes and coronary stent occlusions. However, because of its rare but serious side effects of neutropenia and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura it was primarily used in patients in whom aspirin was not tolerated, or in whom dual antiplatelet therapy was desirable. With the advent of newer and safer antiplatelet drugs such as clopidogrel and ticagrelor, its use remained limited. Ticlopidine was discovered in the 1970s in France by a team led by Fernand Eloy and including Jean-Pierre Maffrand at Castaigne SA that was trying to discover a new anti-inflammatory medication. Pharmacology developers noted that this new compound had strong anti-platelet properties. Starting in 1978 the drug was marketed in France under the brand name Ticlid for people at high risk for thrombotic events, who had just come out of heart surgery, were undergoing hemodialysis, had peripheral vascular disease, or who were otherwise at risk for strokes and ischemic heart disease. • Effectiveness of clopidogrel depends on activation to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P(CYP) 450 system, principally CYP2C19. in combination with aspirin (75 to 325 mg once daily) for patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS (unstable angina, non-ST-elevation MI) Adults: 75 mg P. once daily in combination with aspirin (75 to 325 mg once daily), with or without a loading dose and with or without thrombolytics for patients with ST-elevation MI Use cautiously in: • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura • increased risk of bleeding • concomitant use of drugs that inhibit CYP2C19 (such as esomeprazole, omeprazole) • concomitant use of aspirin in patients with recent transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident • premature discontinuation of drug • pregnant or breastfeeding patients • children (safety and efficacy not established). • Patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers treated with clopidogrel at recommended dosages exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates following acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention than patients with normal CYP2C19 function. CNS: depression, dizziness, fatigue, headache CV: chest pain, hypertension EENT: epistaxis, rhinitis GI: diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastritis, GI bleeding Hematologic: bleeding, neutropenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura Metabolic: hypercholesterolemia, gout Musculoskeletal: joint pain, back pain Respiratory: cough, dyspnea, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, bronchospasm Skin: pruritus, rash, angioedema Other: hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic reactions Drug-drug. • Tests are available to identify a patient's CYP2C19 genotype and can be used as an aid in determining therapeutic strategy. Abciximab, aspirin, eptifibatide, heparin, heparinoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), thrombolytics, ticlopidine, tirofiban, warfarin: increased risk of bleeding CYP2C19 inhibitors (such as esomeprazole, omeprazole): significantly reduced clopidogrel antiplatelet activity Fluvastatin, many NSAIDs, phenytoin, tamoxifen, tolbutamide, torsemide: interference with metabolism of these drugs Drug-diagnostic tests. • Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Bilirubin, hepatic enzymes, nonprotein nitrogen, total cholesterol, uric acid: increased levels Platelets: decreased count Drug-herbs. Anise, arnica, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng: increased risk of bleeding • Monitor hemoglobin and hematocrit periodically. • Monitor patient for unusual bleeding or bruising; drug significantly increases risk of bleeding. • Assess for occult GI blood loss if patient is receiving naproxen concurrently with clopidogrel.

    Clopidogrel wikipedia

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  5. The reformulation of clopidogrel bisulfate is an example of the potential for Acusphere's proprietary Hydrophobic Drug Delivery System HDDSTM technology to create intravenous formulations of drugs that are currently only available in oral dosage form.

    • Clopidogrel bisulfate definition of clopidogrel bisulfate..
    • Clopidogrel Wiki Everipedia.
    • Clopidogrel - DrugBank.

    Like the thienopyridines prasugrel, clopidogrel and ticlopidine, ticagrelor blocks adenosine diphosphate ADP receptors of subtype P2Y 12. In contrast to the other antiplatelet drugs, ticagrelor has a binding site different from ADP, making it an allosteric antagonist, and the blockage is reversible. Clopidogrel ist ein Inhibitor des Adenosindiphosphat-ADP-Rezeptors vom Subtyp P2Y12 aus der Familie der inhibitorischen Gi-Protein-gekoppelten. Dual antiplatelet therapy. Often a combination of aspirin plus an ADP/P2Y inhibitor such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor, or another is used in order to obtain greater effectiveness than with either agent alone. This is known as "Dual antiplatelet therapy" or DAPT. Classification. The class of antiplatelet drugs include

     
  6. Andrei Guest

    Macrolides, as a class of natural or semisynthetic products, express their antibacterial activity primarily by reversible binding to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunits and by blocking nascent proteins’ progression through their exit tunnel in bacterial protein biosynthesis. Generally considered to be bacteriostatic, they may also be bactericidal at higher doses. The discovery of azithromycin from the class of macrolides, as one of the most important new drugs of the 20th century, is presented as an example of a rational medicinal chemistry approach to drug design, applying classical structure-activity relationship that will illustrate an impressive drug discovery success story. However, the microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to acquire resistance to antibiotics, including macrolide antibiotics. The primary mechanism for acquiring bacterial resistance to macrolides is a mutation of one or more nucleotides from the binding site. Although azithromycin is reported to show different, two-step process of the inhibition of ribosome function of some species, more detailed elaboration of that specific mode of action is needed. New macrocyclic derivatives, which could be more potent and less prone to escape bacterial resistance mechanisms, are also continuously evaluated. Azithromycin--spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetics, and clinical. Macrolides & Ketolides Classification, Side Effects, Gram positive VS Gram negative bugs & antibiotics? Yahoo
     
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    ZITHROMAX® azithromycin dihydrate How Supplied/Storage and. Containing azithromycin dihydrate equivalent to 250 mg of azithromycin, Pink. ZITHROMAX tablets should be stored between 15° to 30°C 59° to 86°F.

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