Control of tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal epilepsy), partial seizures (focal including temporal lobe) or a combination of these, and for the prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery and/or severe head injury. Epanutin has also been employed in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia but it should only be used as second line therapy if carbamazepine is ineffective or patients are intolerant to carbamazepine. Dosage: Dosage should be individualised as there may be wide interpatient variability in phenytoin serum levels with equivalent dosage. Epanutin should be introduced in small dosages with gradual increments until control is achieved or until toxic effects appear. In some cases serum level determinations may be necessary for optimal dosage adjustments - the clinically effective level is usually 10 mcg/m L - 20 mcg/m L (40-80 micromoles/l) although some cases of tonic-clonic seizures may be controlled with lower serum levels of phenytoin. With recommended dosage a period of 7 to 10 days may be required to achieve steady state serum levels with Epanutin and changes in dosage should not be carried out at intervals shorter than 7 to 10 days. Maintenance of treatment should be the lowest dose of anticonvulsant consistent with control of seizures. Epanutin Capsules, Oral Suspension and Infatabs: Epanutin Capsules contain phenytoin sodium whereas Epanutin Oral Suspension and Epanutin Infatabs contain phenytoin. Dose equivalence of antidepressants is critically important for clinical practice and for research. There are several methods to define and calculate dose equivalence but for antidepressants, only daily defined dose and consensus methods have been applied to date. The purpose of the present study is to examine dose equivalence of antidepressants by a less arbitrary and more systematic method. We used data from all randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose trials comparing fluoxetine or paroxetine as standard drugs with any other active antidepressants as monotherapy in the acute phase treatment of unipolar depression. We calculated the ratio of the mean doses for each study and weighted it by the total sample size to find the weighted mean ratio for each drug, which was then used to define the drug׳s dosage equivalent to fluoxetine 40 mg/d. In the primary analysis, fluoxetine 40 mg/day was equivalent to paroxetine dosage of 34.0 mg/day, agomelatine 53.2 mg/day, amitriptyline, 122.3 mg/day, bupropion 348.5 mg/day, clomipramine 116.1 mg/day, desipramine 196.3 mg/day, dothiepin 154.8 mg/day, doxepin 140.1 mg/day, escitalopram 18.0 mg/day, fluvoxamine 143.3 mg/day, imipramine 137.2 mg/day, lofepramine 250.2 mg/day, maprotiline 118.0 mg/day, mianserin, 101.1 mg/day, mirtazapine 50.9 mg/day, moclobemide 575.2 mg/day, nefazodone 535.2 mg/day, nortriptyline 100.9 mg/day, reboxetine 11.5 mg/day, sertraline 98.5 mg/day, trazodone 401.4 mg/day, and venlafaxine 149.4 mg/day. Sensitivity analyses corroborated the results except for doxepin.
Drug Interactions. Phenytoin is extensively bound to serum plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome CYP P450 enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 and is particularly susceptible to inhibitory drug interactions because it Detailed Sertraline dosage information for adults and children. Includes dosages for Depression, Depression, Panic Disorder and more; plus renal, liver and dialysis adjustments.