In premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, hormone treatment similar to that used in postmenopausal women is the standard treatment option after tamoxifen treatment failure. We investigated the efficacy and safety of fulvestrant plus goserelin (F G) versus anastrozole plus goserelin (A G) in comparison with goserelin (G) alone in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR ), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), tamoxifen-pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In this multicentre, open-label, randomised phase II study, premenopausal women aged ≥18 years with HR , HER2–, tamoxifen-pretreated MBC were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to F G, A G or G alone. The primary end-point was time to progression (TTP). Secondary end-points included overall survival, overall response rate, clinical benefit rate and toxicity. Of 138 eligible patients, 44 were randomly assigned to receive F G, 47 to A G and 47 to G alone. The median follow-up duration was 32.2 months (interquartile range: 23.69–40.86) and the median age was 43.0 years (range 23.0–55.0). Generic drugs usually cost less than a brand-name drug. Tamoxifen oral tablet is only available as a generic drug. Tamoxifen is used to treat and reduce the risk of certain types of breast cancer. Tamoxifen belongs to a group of drugs called antiestrogens. A class of drugs is a group of medications that work in a similar way. These drugs are often used to treat similar conditions. Antiestrogens work by blocking the effects of the hormone estrogen in the body.
Tamoxifen has rarely caused very serious (possibly fatal) strokes, blood clots in the lungs/legs, and cancer of the uterus. If you are taking tamoxifen to reduce the risk of breast cancer, or if your cancer is limited to the milk ducts (ductal carcinoma in situ-DCIS), then discuss the benefits and risks of taking this medication with your doctor. However, if you are taking tamoxifen to treat breast cancer, then the benefits of taking tamoxifen are greater than the risks of side effects. Get medical help right away if you develop symptoms of a stroke or blood clots in the lungs/legs, such as weakness on one side of the body, slurred speech, sudden vision changes, confusion, shortness of breath, chest pain, or calf pain/swelling. Tell your doctor right away if you develop symptoms of cancer of the uterus, such as unusual changes in your monthly period (e.g., amount or timing of bleeding), unusual vaginal discharge, or pain/pressure below your "belly button" (navel). Show More Tamoxifen is used to treat breast cancer. It is also used to reduce the chances of breast cancer in high-risk patients. This medication can block the growth of breast cancer. Tamoxifen may cause cancer of the uterus (womb), strokes, and blood clots in the lungs. Tell your doctor if you have ever had a blood clot in the lungs or legs, a stroke, or a heart attack. Also tell your doctor if you smoke, if you have high blood pressure or diabetes, if your ability to move around during your waking hours is limited, or if you are taking anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin). If you experience any of the following symptoms during or after your treatment, call your doctor immediately: abnormal vaginal bleeding; irregular menstrual periods; changes in vaginal discharge, especially if the discharge becomes bloody, brown, or rusty; pain or pressure in the pelvis (the stomach area below the belly button); leg swelling or tenderness; chest pain; shortness of breath; coughing up blood; sudden weakness, tingling, or numbness in your face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of your body; sudden confusion; difficulty speaking or understanding; sudden difficulty seeing in one or both eyes; sudden difficulty walking; dizziness; loss of balance or coordination; or sudden severe headache. You will need to have gynecological examinations (examinations of the female organs) regularly to find early signs of cancer of the uterus. If you are thinking about taking tamoxifen to reduce the chance that you will develop breast cancer, you should talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of this treatment. You and your doctor will decide whether the possible benefit of tamoxifen treatment is worth the risks of taking the medication. If you need to take tamoxifen to treat breast cancer, the benefits of tamoxifen outweigh the risks. Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the manufacturer's patient information sheet (Medication Guide) when you begin treatment with tamoxifen and each time you refill your prescription.
Tamoxifen blocks the actions of estrogen, a female hormone. Certain types of breast cancer require estrogen to grow. Tamoxifen is used to treat some types of breast cancer in men and women. It is also used to lower a woman's chance of developing breast cancer if she has a high risk (such as a family history of breast cancer). Use a barrier form of birth control (such as a condom or diaphragm with spermicide) while you are using this medication and for at least 2 months after your treatment ends. Tamoxifen may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. You should not use tamoxifen if you are allergic to it, or if you have a history of blood clots in your veins or your lungs, or if you are also taking a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin). Before using this medicine, tell your doctor if you have liver disease, high triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood), a history of cataract, or a history of stroke or blood clot. Also tell your doctor if you if you are receiving chemotherapy or radiation treatment. In 2006, the large STAR clinical study concluded that raloxifene is equally effective in reducing the incidence of breast cancer, but after an average 4-year follow-up, although the difference was not statistically significant, there were 36% fewer uterine cancers and 29% fewer blood clots in women taking raloxifene than in women taking tamoxifen. Tamoxifen improves fertility in males with infertility by disinhibiting the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) via ER antagonism and thereby increasing the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and increasing testicular testosterone production. It is taken as a preventative measure in small doses, or used at the onset of any symptoms such as nipple soreness or sensitivity. Other drugs are taken for similar purposes such as clomifene and the anti-aromatase drugs which are used in order to try to avoid the hormone-related adverse effects. Occasionally tamoxifen is used in treatment of the rare conditions of retroperitoneal fibrosis A report in September 2009 from Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality suggests that tamoxifen, raloxifene, and tibolone used to treat breast cancer significantly reduce invasive breast cancer in midlife and older women, but also increase the risk of adverse side effects. Some cases of lower-limb lymphedema have been associated with the use of tamoxifen, due to the blood clots and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that can be caused by this medication. Resolution of the blood clots or DVT is needed before lymphedema treatment can be initiated.
Results Half 51.7% of the GPs knew tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer risk. Prescribing off-label because tamoxifen is not licensed for primary prevention. Tamoxifen oral tablet is used to treat and help prevent breast cancer. Learn about side effectsTamoxifen can increase the risk of serious and life-threatening events, including uterine cancer.