This article is intended to provide a broad overview of pharmacology and medications often used in either community or institutional pharmacy settings and is not intended as sole means towards determining diagnosis and/or treatment of an individual. This article will cover the following knowledge areas: To get started in this article, there are some terms that should be defined. pharmacology - The term pharmacology is derived from two Greek words "pharmakon" and "logos". Pharmakon can mean sacrament, remedy, poison, talisman, cosmetic, perfume or intoxicant, but in this case, it can be broadly defined as drug. Logos can be translated as a principle of order and knowledge. By combining the terms you can see that pharmacology is concerned with the knowledge of drugs. pharmacokinetics - Pharmacokinetics is a branch of pharmacology concerned with the rate of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) by the body. Paroxetine, sold under the brand names Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. The United States Department of Justice fined Glaxo Smith Kline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression. Paroxetine is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and menopausal hot flashes. A variety of meta analyses have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of paroxetine in depression. Food and Drug Administration approved low-dose paroxetine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. They have variously concluded that paroxetine is superior or equivalent to placebo and that it is equivalent or inferior to other antidepressants. Paroxetine shares many of the common adverse effects of SSRIs, including (with the corresponding rates seen in people treated with placebo in parentheses): nausea 26% (9%), diarrhea 12% (8%), constipation 14% (9%), dry mouth 18% (12%), somnolence 23% (9%), insomnia 13% (6%), headache 18% (17%), hypomania 1% (0.3%), blurred vision 4%(1%), loss of appetite 6% (2%), nervousness 5% (3%), paraesthesia 4% (2%), dizziness 13% (6%), asthenia (weakness; 15% (6%)), tremor 8% (2%), sweating 11% (2%), and sexual dysfunction (≥10% incidence).
Unfortunately, many sections of the German textbook are not translated yet. As a workaround, you can use the Google Translator function for this website (original German link: Medikamente). ; Eli Lilly and Co.) is classified as a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 2004 for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and one month later received an indication for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain associated with diabetic neuropathy (DN). MDD is characterized by a depressed mood or loss of interest in activities for a minimum of 2 weeks. At least four other symptoms must be experienced by the patient and may include fatigue, change in sleep patterns or appetite, impaired concentration, feelings of guilt, or periodic thoughts of death or suicide. MDD may manifest as unipolar depression, referring only to the periodic occurrence of depressive symptoms, or as bipolar depression, where depressive symptoms alternate with manic episodes consisting of a combination of increased psychomotor activity, decreased need for sleep, and delusional, grandiose, paranoid, or psychotic behavior. A possible cause of depression is a medical illness, either through psychological stress, the disease itself, or the pharmacological treatment. Neuroendocrine hormonal variations can also contribute to the etiology of MDD, especially when combined with environmental stressors (e.g., death of a relative, assault, or severe relationship issues).
La duloxétine, commercialisée dans divers pays sous les noms de Cymbalta, Yentreve, Xeristar ou Ari Claim est un antidépresseur inhibiteur de la recapture de la sérotonine et de la noradrénaline. Il est utilisé pour le traitement de l’épisode dépressif majeur, du trouble de l'anxiété généralisée, de la douleur liée à la neuropathie diabétique. Dans certains pays, il est autorisé dans le traitement de la fibromyalgie et de l'incontinence urinaire d'effort. La duloxétine a été découverte et brevetée par le laboratoire Eli Lilly. La duloxétine a été créée par les chercheurs David Robertson, David Wong (également codécouvreur de la fluoxétine et Joseph Krushinski, du laboratoire Eli Lilly). La demande de brevet a été déposée en 1986 et le brevet accordé en 1990, mais c'est le second énantiomère ( ) LY248686 qui sera choisi pour la suite des études car il inhibait deux fois plus la recapture de sérotonine que l'énantiomère (–). Après de nombreux tests, en 2001, Eli Lilly présente la duloxétine à la FDA pour le traitement de la dépression, celle-ci ne l'acceptera qu'en 2004 après qu'Eli Lilly eut résolu des problèmes d'hépatotoxicité et d'augmentation de la pression artérielle. Duloxetine was approved for the treatment of major depression in 2004. While duloxetine has demonstrated improvement in depression-related symptoms compared to placebo, comparisons of duloxetine to other antidepressant medications have been less successful. A 2012 Cochrane Review did not find greater efficacy of duloxetine compared to SSRIs and newer antidepressants. Additionally, the review found evidence that duloxetine has increased side effects and reduced tolerability compared to other antidepressants. It thus did not recommend duloxetine as a first line treatment for major depressive disorder, given the (then) high cost of duloxetine compared to inexpensive off-patent antidepressants and lack of increased efficacy. do not list duloxetine among the recommended treatment options. A review from the Annals of Internal Medicine lists duloxetine among the first line drug treatments, however, along with citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, and venlafaxine.
This article is intended to provide a broad overview of pharmacology and medications often used in either community or institutional pharmacy settings and is not intended as sole means towards determining diagnosis and/or treatment of an individual. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors SNRIs Pharmacology, administration, and side effects